桂林"鸡血红碧玉"是一种石英质玉石,颜色以鲜艳的红色与黑色为主,质地坚硬且耐磨。目前对该矿石的野外产状、地质背景、岩石结构和颜色成因等相关研究报道较少。野外勘察表明,桂林"鸡血红碧玉"矿床位于扬子板块与华夏板块交界处,产于广西北部龙胜地区新元古界丹洲群三门街组经含铁氧化物浸染的汽水热液浅变质砂岩中,其形成过程受到了新元古代-三叠纪数次大地构造与岩浆活动的影响,成因复杂。本文利用偏光显微镜和X射线衍射分析等手段,对桂林"鸡血红碧玉"的成分进行了深入研究,结果表明桂林"鸡血红碧玉"主要矿物组合为石英和赤铁矿,部分样品中含有白云石。石英呈现他形等粒结构和自形变斑晶结构;自形石英颗粒中可见加大边,指示后期经历过变质交代作用。赤铁矿在样品中呈现3种形式产出: ① 呈单晶形式产于石英颗粒的粒间与晶内; ② 呈点尘状包裹于石英颗粒中; ③ 呈浸染状分布于石英颗粒间隙。赤铁矿中铁离子为红色致色原因。电子探针分析显示,浸染状和单晶赤铁矿中铁含量高达78.9%～85.6%;点尘状赤铁矿由于颗粒细小,难以精确分析其铁含量。结合石英和赤铁矿发育期次,认为"鸡血红碧玉"中不同形态的石英和赤铁矿的产出与区域地质演化背景相一致。
Guilin Chicken Blood Red Jasper (CBRJ) is a kind of quartz jasper. It is characterized by bright red to black colors and high hardness. However, few researches have been focused on the field occurrence, geological background, rock structure and genesis of its color. Field surveys indicate that the Guilin CBRJ is hosted in low-grade metamorphic sandstones which experienced vapor-water hydrothermal metamorphism and iron oxide dissemination. It occurs in the Sanmenjie Formation of Neoproterozoic Danzhou Group in Longsheng area in the north of Guangxi. Tectonically, the ore deposit of Guilin CBRJ is located at the juncture of Yangtze and Cathaysian plates, which has undergone a complex geological process. Its formation was related to multi-phase tectono-magmatic activities from Neoproterozoic to Triassic. Detailed analyses of mineralogy, micro-texture and geochemical composition of Guilin CBRJ were carried out by polarizing microscope, X-ray diffraction, and electronic microprobe. The results indicate that the CBRJ is mainly composed of quartz and hematite, with dolomites in some samples. Quartz grains exhibit two types of allotriomorphic equigranular texture and idiomorphic porphyroblastic texture. The latter one, in which distinct enlargement texture can be observed, reveals a metasomatic metamorphism phase. Hematite occurs in three types: ① single crystal existent between or inside the quartz particles, ② dusty crystals wrapped in the quartz particles, and ③ disseminated crystals filled between the quartz particles. The Fe3+ in the hematite should be responsible for the color of the CBRJ. Electron microprobe analysis shows that the hematites of single crystal and disseminated crystals have 78.9%～85.6% iron oxides, but the dusty crystal is too small to be analyzed. In combination with the different generations of quartz and hematite, the authors have reached the conclusion that the formation of different types of these minerals in the Guilin CBRJ was consistent with the regionally geological evolution in this area.