The geochemical characteristics and abnormal sources of As, Cd, Cr, Cu, Hg, Ni, Pb and Zn in the soil of Southern Xuancheng were analyzed and studied by using the 1:250 000 land quality geochemical survey data. It is found that the geological background is the main controlling factor for the content of soil elements, and that the spatial distribution characteristics of heavy metal elements in the surface and deep soil in the area are significantly consistent with the geological background and sedimentary environment. The high content of heavy metal in the soil parent rock geological background (Hetang Formation, Piyuancun Formation and Lantian Formation, etc) is the main influencing factor for the high anomaly of soil heavy metal elements. In addition, mining and atmospheric dry and wet deposition are also one of the factors affecting high anomaly of heavy metals in soil. It is found that Pb, Hg, Cd and Cr in soil have input sources of atmospheric dry and wet deposition. The main impact index of heavy metal in soil pollution risk in the survey areas was Cd. The proportion of samples that soil Cd exceeded the control value of soil pollution risk of agricultural land was 2.56%. The morphological analysis results show that soil Cd is mainly in ion-exchange state. Combined with crops investigation, it is found that there is a certain ecological risk in the area with high abnormal soil Cd.