• Volume 43,Issue 1,2024 Table of Contents
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    • >专题研究
    • Geochronology, petrogenesis and tectonic setting of the Eocene-Oligocene intrusive rocks in Chiclayo area, north of Peru

      2024, 43(1):1-20. DOI: 10.20086/j.cnki.yskw.2024.0101

      Abstract (134) HTML (0) PDF 9.94 M (618) Comment (0) Favorites

      Abstract:In order to fully understand the tectono-magmatic evolution of the coastal batholiths of northern Peru since the Eocene, and to discuss the formation age, petrogenesis and tectonic environment of the intrusive rocks, typical samples were systematically collected from the coastal batholiths from west to east. The LA-ICP-MS zircon U-Pb chronology dating results show that the intrusive rock age is divided into two periods, 52~47 Ma and 36~28 Ma, which gradually change new from west to east. The rock geochemistry of the sample has the characteristics of calc-alkaline and high-potassium calc-alkaline, with a clear enrichment of large ionic lithophilic elements such as Rb, Ba, K and U, and a relative lack of high field strength elements such as Nb, Ta, P and Ti. The pattern of the chondrite-normalized REE distribution shows a right-leaning type of LREE enrichment with a clear negative Eu anomaly. The Sr/Y-Y diagram and Rb-(Y+Nb) diagram show the characteristics of island arc magmatic rocks. Both the Rb/Sr and Th/U ratios are close to those characteristics of crustal magma. The Nb/Ta ratio and Zr/Hf ratio are close to the average continental crust composition. The La/Ba-La/Nb diagram indicates the characteristics of the lithospheric mantle source region. The A/MF-C/MF diagram shows that most of the samples fall into the partial melting zone of the basic rock. Combined with the tectonic background of the subduction of the Nazca plate to the South American continental plate and the characteristics of the geochemical and chronological data of the samples, it is considered that the magma of the two intrusive rocks have homologous characteristics, and the magma source area may be derived from the partial melting of the basic lower crust and the contamination of the lithospheric mantle material. Under the low-angle slab subduction of the Nazca plate, the magmatic arc migrated eastward, and the time period of the crustal uplift and thickening was slightly later than the 30 Ma in the central and southern areas (after about 28 Ma).

    • Study of the genetic mechanism of ooids in Permian bauxite ore from western Guangxi

      2024, 43(1):21-36. DOI: 10.20086/j.cnki.yskw.2024.0102

      Abstract (77) HTML (0) PDF 11.33 M (353) Comment (0) Favorites

      Abstract:Previous studies have shown that the Al content of ooids in bauxite is generally higher than that of the matrix, but how the ooids enrich Al is still unclear. Basing on the observation of bauxite in western Guangxi, as well as electron probe microanalysis (EPMA) and X-ray powder diffraction, this paper focus on the ore structure and elemental geochemical behave, and try to unravel the growth mechanism of ooids in bauxite.The variable sequences of ore-bearing rock series demonstrate that the bauxite in western Guangxi is formed on continent.The EPMA proves that the Al of the ooids is higher than that of the matrix, such as the Al in the inner layer is greater than 50%, while the Si is less than 1%, and the Fe fluctuates around 1%, meanwhile the degree of crystallization of diaspore is also higher. The structures related to the formation of ooids are mainly gel and fissure, and then a positive feedback was set up between gel and fissure.The colloids grew segregating to form mainly aluminum-rich, silicon-rich and iron-rich gels, and during the segregation process, Fe and Si had strong affinity, and their migration ability was higher than of Al. It can be deduced that the formation of ooids was a repeated process of gel-segregation when weathered materials were buried slightly, and the the humid-dry-hot climate is the drive for the gel-segregation. The formation of ooids can be roughly divided into three stages, namely, water filling stage, humid stage and dry-hot stage, and the nucleation mechanism is dehydration shrinkage, whereas the growth mechanism of the ring layer is the alternation of gelation and gel aging. The transport of matter from bauxite-type weathering crust stopped the growth of ring to form aborted ooids, and when the conditions are favorable the regenerated ooids would formed. The concept of magnetic field is introduced for the first time to explain the reason why the ooids always maintain round shape.

    • Can biotite geothermometer be used to estimate the crystallization temperature of granitic intrusive rocks?

      2024, 43(1):37-46. DOI: 10.20086/j.cnki.yskw.2024.0103

      Abstract (106) HTML (0) PDF 7.42 M (367) Comment (0) Favorites

      Abstract:In order to investigate whether the biotite thermometer is suitable for estimating crystallization temperature of granite intrusive rocks, a compilation of the petrochemistry and mineral chemistry data of typical granitic intrusive rocks at domestic and abroad was made. The magma temperature was estimated using Henry et al.(2005) biotite Ti saturation geothermometer and the Li and Zhang (2022) version of the biotite geothermometer, and the results were compared with those estimated by the zircon saturation geothermometer in Shao et al.(2020). The results show that the temperatures estimated by the biotite Ti saturation geothermometer are 50~200℃ lower than those estimated by the zircon saturation geothermometer and the 2022 version of the biotite geothermometer. The biotite Ti saturation thermometer is not suitable for estimating the crystallization temperature of granitic intrusive rocks, while the Li and Zhang (2022) version of the biotite thermometer can reproduce the results of the zircon saturation thermometer for S-type and I-type granites.

    • The discovery and prospecting significance of lithium-enriched claystone in the Middle-Late Triassic boundary in Zhenba area, southern Shaanxi

      2024, 43(1):47-62. DOI: 10.20086/j.cnki.yskw.2024.0104

      Abstract (66) HTML (0) PDF 10.31 M (376) Comment (0) Favorites

      Abstract:It is the first time that the super abnormal enrichment of lithium has been reported in the claystone at the bottom of the Middle-Late Triassic Xujiahe Formation in the Zhenba area, located on the northern margin of the Yangtze plate. The claystone, which contains Li2O ranging from 0.08% to 0.11% (up to 0.22%), develops in the parallel unconformity interface of Guanling Formation (T2g)/Xujiahe Formation (T3x), representing ancient weathering crust sediments. The Li2O content exceeds the boundary grade (0.06%) of this type of deposit. To further understand the petrological characteristics, mineral composition, and petrogenesis of the boundary claystone, this paper aims to identify the minerals composition, discuss the sedimentary environment and sediment source, and propose a comprehensive prospecting direction for key metal minerals using XRD analysis, TIMA analysis, and detailed geochemical research. The results demonstrate that the T2/T3 boundary claystone in the Zhenba area is mainly composed of quartz, illite, and kaolinite, with small amounts of chlorite, montmorillonite, and sudoite. The major elemental characteristics (SiO2, Al2O3, TFe2O3, TiO2) indicate that the boundary claystone belongs to bauxite mudstone. The CIA (chemical index of alteration) and ICV (index of compositional variability) values range from 85 to 93 and 0.22 to 0.46, respectively, indicating that the sedimentary parent rock has undergone significant chemical weathering processes. Currently, the claystone found in unconformities in China includes iron-aluminum claystone, aluminum claystone, and bauxite rock. These represent ancient weathering crust sediments, and important metal minerals such as lithium (Li), gallium (Ga), rare earth elements (REE), and niobium (Nb) are produced. The formation age is primarily Carboniferous-Permian, exhibiting characteristics of multi-element comprehensive mineralization. This paper suggests that comprehensive exploration of claystone on unconformity surfaces should be strengthened in the future to facilitate new breakthroughs in prospecting.

    • >战略性非金属矿产
    • Hydrochemical characteristics of formation water in tight sandstone gas reservoirs and their geological significance: A case study of the Xinchang Gas Field in Western Sichuan Depression

      2024, 43(1):63-73. DOI: 10.20086/j.cnki.yskw.2024.0105

      Abstract (62) HTML (0) PDF 7.82 M (306) Comment (0) Favorites

      Abstract:The Jurassic Shaximiao Formation and Triassic Xujiahe Formation in the Sichuan Basin serve as key replacement areas for increased storage and production of onshore tight gas resources. They possess substantial reserves that are challenging to exploit and hold significant exploration and development potential. However, extensive and ongoing exploratory drilling and development have led to significant water production from wells in both the shallow Shaximiao Formation and the deeper Xujiahe Formation gas reservoirs. This water production has severely constrained the gas production capacity of these wells, with some wells even ceasing production due to water flooding. This study conducted an analysis of the formation water from 34 gas wells at various stratigraphic levels in the study area, focusing on major and trace elements, as well as the evolutionary characteristics of the reservoirs. The results indicate that both the Shaximiao Formation and the Xujiahe Formation gas reservoirs underwent an evolutionary process of initial formation, subsequent compaction, and subsequent modification. Fault connectivity resulted in significant upwelling of formation water from the deep Xujiahe Formation, leading to substantial infiltration into highly permeable sand bodies adjacent to faults. Under the influence of hydrodynamics and other driving forces, natural gas efficiently migrated vertically along fault zones in either a free or dissolved phase. Vertically, the majority of ion concentrations increased progressively with depth. The deep Xujiahe Formation gas reservoirs exhibit favorable conditions for oil and gas preservation and have undergone more complex water-rock interactions, causing varying degrees of enrichment in elements such as K, Ba, Sr, Li, and Rb.

    • >综述与进展
    • Review, application and prospect of global mineral deposit databases

      2024, 43(1):74-88. DOI: 10.20086/j.cnki.yskw.2024.0106

      Abstract (85) HTML (0) PDF 10.47 M (342) Comment (0) Favorites

      Abstract:The data-driven scientific model based on big data and artificial intelligence technology has promoted the transformation of Earth science research. As an important branch of Earth science, modern mineral deposits has accumulated a large amount of data after more than 100 years of development. The flow and sharing of these data is the key to realizing its resource value. In this paper, we introduce databases related to mineral deposits in various countries, such as China's "Geological Cloud" and Global Mineral Resource Reserve Dynamic Assessment Database, Australia's Deep Earth Exploration Program AuScope,the United States Mineral Resources Online Spatial Database, Geofaces Database of Society of Economic Geologists (SEG) and the SNL Metals & Mining Database.Meanwhile, we also introduce several important progresses made by applying big data and artificial intelligence methods in regional metallogenic regularity, genetic mechanism of ore deposit, discrimination of deposit type, resource potential evaluation and strategic consultation. This paper puts that it is imperative to integrate global massive data to build an open, shared and unified big data platform for mineral deposits database in the framework of the Deep-time Digital Earth (DDE) Big Science Program.

    • >环境矿物学
    • Study of the effect of roasting on the mineralogical characteristics of fibrous brucite

      2024, 43(1):89-99. DOI: 10.20086/j.cnki.yskw.2024.0107

      Abstract (39) HTML (0) PDF 6.48 M (311) Comment (0) Favorites

      Abstract:Fiber brucite is a unique natural hydroxide mineral fiber with the characteristics of strengthening, toughening, high-temperature resistance, and flame retardancy. It is widely used in fields such as construction, flame retardancy, and papermaking. The application of fiber brucite in high value-added products has important economic significance, and the application of fiber brucite is closely related to its mineralogical characteristics. The Heimulin fiber brucite deposit in Hanzhong, Shaanxi is currently the largest fiber brucite deposit in the world, and there is currently limited research on the mineralogical characteristics of fiber brucite in the region. By means of X-ray diffraction (XRD), X-ray fluorescence analysis (XRF), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), nitrogen adsorption desorption, and thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), this article studies the mineralogical characteristics and the changes in mineralogical characteristics of Heimulin fibrous brucite after heat treatment, providing a theoretical basis and scientific proof for the application of fibrous brucite, thereby further enhancing their economic value.

    • Stabilization of phosphorus in phosphogypsum by biochar

      2024, 43(1):100-108. DOI: 10.20086/j.cnki.yskw.2024.0108

      Abstract (27) HTML (0) PDF 5.58 M (274) Comment (0) Favorites

      Abstract:The phosphorus in phosphogypsum leaches out under the eluviation of rainwater and will pollute the waters near the storage site. In this study, biochar was used to solidify the phosphorus in phosphogypsum to reduce its impact on the surrounding waters. The experiment mainly included simulating solidification experiment and leaching out experiment, analyzed the effects of biochar dosage, reaction time and temperature, initial pH value on solidification effect. The products after solidification were analyzed by XRD and SEM-EDS. The results showed that the biochar had an obvious solidification effect on phosphorus in phosphogypsum, the maximum solidifying capacity per unit reached 13.20 mg/g; under the condition of T=293 K and initial pH=7, the reaction equilibrium time was 72 h, and the equilibrium phosphorus concentration of the leaching solution Ce=1.40 mg/L; the temperature increase was helpful to improve the solidifying effect of biochar, when the reaction temperature T=308 K, the equilibrium phosphorus concentration of the leaching solution Ce=0.167 mg/L; the alkaline condition was conducive to the continuous solidification reaction, under the condition of pH=11, the equilibrium phosphorus concentration of the leaching solution Ce=0.153 mg/L.The CaSO4·2 H2O in phosphogypsum was dissolved, Ca2+ was combined with the surface of biochar which is electronegative, chemical adsorbing phosphate radical in the solution, formed flocculent, clustered hydroxyapatite(HAP), the leaching phosphorus can be effectively controlled.

    • Passivation remediation of cadmium contaminated soil by attapulgite-double-crosslinked hydrogel microspheres

      2024, 43(1):109-116. DOI: 10.20086/j.cnki.yskw.2024.0109

      Abstract (25) HTML (0) PDF 5.77 M (243) Comment (0) Favorites

      Abstract:In order to study the passivation remediation effect of attapulgite-double-crosslinked hydrogel microspheres (SA/PVA/ATP) on cadmium contaminated soil, SA/PVA/ATP was added to cadmium contaminated soil with concentration of 3.72 mg/kg for flooding cultivation, using simulated acid rain, mixed extractant of diethylenetriamine pentaacetic acid (DTPA) and triethanolamine (TEA) (DTPA extractant) to extract available cadmium, and using sequential extraction method of the European Community Bureau of Standards (BCR) to extract different forms of cadmium in soil. The correlation between SA/PVA/ATP addition, available cadmium and various forms of cadmium in soil was discussed. The passivation capacity, remediation efficiency and heavy metal risk assessment index were calculated, and the passivation mechanism of SA/PVA/ATP on soil cadmium was explored. The results show that with the increase of the amount of SA/PVA/ATP, the available cadmium content of DTPA extractant and acid rain extraction decrease significantly from 1.72 mg/kg and 0.024 mg/kg to 0.66 mg/kg and 0.004 4 mg/kg respectively, the content of weak acid extractable and reducible cadmium in soil decrease significantly from 1.40 mg/kg and 0.81 mg/kg to 1.01 mg/kg and 0.41 mg/kg, respectively, while the content of oxidizable and residual cadmium increase significantly from 0.86 mg/kg and 0.63 mg/kg to 0.95 mg/kg and 1.27 mg/kg, respectively. The addition of material has a significant negative correlation with available cadmium, weakly acid extractable cadmium and reducible cadmium, while a significant positive correlation with oxidizable cadmium and residual cadmium. When the addition of SA/PVA/ATP is 2.0%, the maximum passivation capacity is 19.15 mg/kg, the maximum remediation efficiency is 34.89%, and the soil environment fall from high risk to medium risk. SA/PVA/ATP can reduce the bioavailability of cadmium and realize the passivation remediation of cadmium contaminated soil through transforming the weak acid extracted and reducible forms into oxidizable and residual forms in soil.

    • Biosynthesis of FeS and its stability column migration study

      2024, 43(1):117-124. DOI: 10.20086/j.cnki.yskw.2024.0110

      Abstract (29) HTML (0) PDF 5.36 M (255) Comment (0) Favorites

      Abstract:Metal nano ferrous sulfide (FeS) has broad application prospects in heavy/metalloid remediation. Using Acidiphilum cryptum iron-reducing bacteria (JF-5) and sulfate-reducing bacteria (SRB) to synthesize biological nano-FeS, to explore its natural sedimentation law, and to use sodium carboxymethyl cellulose (CMC) as a stabilizer to explore CMC-FeS mobility characteristics in quartz sand columns. The results showed that the nano-FeS could be formed by mixing SRB and JF-5 bacterial solution with certain proportions, and when the n(Fe):n(S)=0.2 in the mixed bacterial solution, the amount of FeS was the largest with 2 400 mg/L of the particle concentration; the natural sedimentation rate of FeS could be effectively slowed down in 0.1% CMC solution. The convection diffusion model can well describe the migration behavior of CMC-FeS suspended particles in quartz sand columns. Compared with the purewater-FeS system (R2=0.20), the model correlation was as high as 0.85. Under three imput flow rates (90, 180 and 360 mL/h), the medium flow rate could obtain the best permeability, and the average permeability coefficient was 243.97 cm/h. Therefore, the stability and migration of CMC-FeS have been enhanced compared with the purewater-FeS, which may provide a theoretical reference for soil pollution remediation.

    • Utilization technology of alkaline filtrate in kaliophilite preparation system

      2024, 43(1):125-130. DOI: 10.20086/j.cnki.yskw.2024.0111

      Abstract (28) HTML (0) PDF 3.83 M (237) Comment (0) Favorites

      Abstract:In order to produce alkaline filtrate from potassium feldspar hydrothermal preparation of potassium nepheline, the effects of dissolution time, crystallization time, crystallization temperature and water-alkali ratio on the yield and whiteness of potassium nepheline were investigated by hydrothermal method. The results show that the optimum conditions for the synthesis of potassium nepheline are as follows: the dissolution time of alumina hydroxide is 1.5 hours, the crystallization time is 4 hours, the crystallization temperature is 280℃, and the water-alkali ratio is 1.8. XRD spectrum shows the product is kaliophilite owder. FTIR spectrum shows that Al in Al(OH)3 enters the Si—O framework to form Si—O—Al functional groups under hydrothermal conditions, thus confirming the synthesis of kaliophilite. The result of DTG indicates that the kaliophilite synthesized has good thermal stability. Isotherm indicates that the surface area of synthetic kaliophilite is 5.18 m2/g and the average pore size is 32.98 nm. The alkaline filtrate produced by hydrothermal preparation of potassium nepheline by potassium feldspar was realized as resource utilization, and a kind of mother liquor circulation idea was provided for hydrothermal preparation of potassium nepheline by potassium feldspar. The industrialization of hydrothermal preparation of potassium nepheline has become a possibility.

    • >综合资料
    • New minerals approved in 2011

      2024, 43(1):131-198. DOI: 10.20086/j.cnki.yskw.2024.0112

      Abstract (45) HTML (0) PDF 38.55 M (241) Comment (0) Favorites

      Abstract:The paper is a systematic collection of 122 new minerals approved by the Commission on New Minerals,Nomenclature and Classification (CNMNC) of the International Mineralogical Association(IMA) in 2011, by listing mineral name, crystallochemical formula,crystal structure data,physical and optical properties, locality of origin and occurrence, relationship with other minerals, source of mineral names, chemical reaction and spectroscopic characteristics. It's very meaningful that Chinese names of 122 new minerals have been examined and revised under the authority of Chinese Commission of New Minerals and Mineral Names. As a part of the comprehensive introduction to discovery and research of new minerals in the world,this paper will provide reference for the work of discovering, researching and naming new minerals in China and promote the standardization of Chinese names of mineral species.

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