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    Volume 43,2024 Issue 1
      专题研究
    • YAO Chun-yan, GUO Wei-min, LIU Jun-an, LI Han-wu, WANG Tian-gang

      2024,43(1):1-20, DOI: 10.20086/j.cnki.yskw.2024.0101

      Abstract:

      In order to fully understand the tectono-magmatic evolution of the coastal batholiths of northern Peru since the Eocene, and to discuss the formation age, petrogenesis and tectonic environment of the intrusive rocks, typical samples were systematically collected from the coastal batholiths from west to east. The LA-ICP-MS zircon U-Pb chronology dating results show that the intrusive rock age is divided into two periods, 52~47 Ma and 36~28 Ma, which gradually change new from west to east. The rock geochemistry of the sample has the characteristics of calc-alkaline and high-potassium calc-alkaline, with a clear enrichment of large ionic lithophilic elements such as Rb, Ba, K and U, and a relative lack of high field strength elements such as Nb, Ta, P and Ti. The pattern of the chondrite-normalized REE distribution shows a right-leaning type of LREE enrichment with a clear negative Eu anomaly. The Sr/Y-Y diagram and Rb-(Y+Nb) diagram show the characteristics of island arc magmatic rocks. Both the Rb/Sr and Th/U ratios are close to those characteristics of crustal magma. The Nb/Ta ratio and Zr/Hf ratio are close to the average continental crust composition. The La/Ba-La/Nb diagram indicates the characteristics of the lithospheric mantle source region. The A/MF-C/MF diagram shows that most of the samples fall into the partial melting zone of the basic rock. Combined with the tectonic background of the subduction of the Nazca plate to the South American continental plate and the characteristics of the geochemical and chronological data of the samples, it is considered that the magma of the two intrusive rocks have homologous characteristics, and the magma source area may be derived from the partial melting of the basic lower crust and the contamination of the lithospheric mantle material. Under the low-angle slab subduction of the Nazca plate, the magmatic arc migrated eastward, and the time period of the crustal uplift and thickening was slightly later than the 30 Ma in the central and southern areas (after about 28 Ma).

    • ZHANG Qi-lian, WEI Fang, DENG Jun, LI Huo-song, CHEN Wen-lun, GONG Yan, QIN Hong-feng, XIN Xiao-wei, HUANG Shang-heng, WANG Xue-heng, SU Ke

      2024,43(1):21-36, DOI: 10.20086/j.cnki.yskw.2024.0102

      Abstract:

      Previous studies have shown that the Al content of ooids in bauxite is generally higher than that of the matrix, but how the ooids enrich Al is still unclear. Basing on the observation of bauxite in western Guangxi, as well as electron probe microanalysis (EPMA) and X-ray powder diffraction, this paper focus on the ore structure and elemental geochemical behave, and try to unravel the growth mechanism of ooids in bauxite.The variable sequences of ore-bearing rock series demonstrate that the bauxite in western Guangxi is formed on continent.The EPMA proves that the Al of the ooids is higher than that of the matrix, such as the Al in the inner layer is greater than 50%, while the Si is less than 1%, and the Fe fluctuates around 1%, meanwhile the degree of crystallization of diaspore is also higher. The structures related to the formation of ooids are mainly gel and fissure, and then a positive feedback was set up between gel and fissure.The colloids grew segregating to form mainly aluminum-rich, silicon-rich and iron-rich gels, and during the segregation process, Fe and Si had strong affinity, and their migration ability was higher than of Al. It can be deduced that the formation of ooids was a repeated process of gel-segregation when weathered materials were buried slightly, and the the humid-dry-hot climate is the drive for the gel-segregation. The formation of ooids can be roughly divided into three stages, namely, water filling stage, humid stage and dry-hot stage, and the nucleation mechanism is dehydration shrinkage, whereas the growth mechanism of the ring layer is the alternation of gelation and gel aging. The transport of matter from bauxite-type weathering crust stopped the growth of ring to form aborted ooids, and when the conditions are favorable the regenerated ooids would formed. The concept of magnetic field is introduced for the first time to explain the reason why the ooids always maintain round shape.

    • XU Hong-xue, WANG Yang

      2024,43(1):37-46, DOI: 10.20086/j.cnki.yskw.2024.0103

      Abstract:

      In order to investigate whether the biotite thermometer is suitable for estimating crystallization temperature of granite intrusive rocks, a compilation of the petrochemistry and mineral chemistry data of typical granitic intrusive rocks at domestic and abroad was made. The magma temperature was estimated using Henry et al.(2005) biotite Ti saturation geothermometer and the Li and Zhang (2022) version of the biotite geothermometer, and the results were compared with those estimated by the zircon saturation geothermometer in Shao et al.(2020). The results show that the temperatures estimated by the biotite Ti saturation geothermometer are 50~200℃ lower than those estimated by the zircon saturation geothermometer and the 2022 version of the biotite geothermometer. The biotite Ti saturation thermometer is not suitable for estimating the crystallization temperature of granitic intrusive rocks, while the Li and Zhang (2022) version of the biotite thermometer can reproduce the results of the zircon saturation thermometer for S-type and I-type granites.

    • ZHOU Wei, QI Xiao-peng, ZHANG Jia-sheng, XU Lei, YANG Jie, GAO Jing-min

      2024,43(1):47-62, DOI: 10.20086/j.cnki.yskw.2024.0104

      Abstract:

      It is the first time that the super abnormal enrichment of lithium has been reported in the claystone at the bottom of the Middle-Late Triassic Xujiahe Formation in the Zhenba area, located on the northern margin of the Yangtze plate. The claystone, which contains Li2O ranging from 0.08% to 0.11% (up to 0.22%), develops in the parallel unconformity interface of Guanling Formation (T2g)/Xujiahe Formation (T3x), representing ancient weathering crust sediments. The Li2O content exceeds the boundary grade (0.06%) of this type of deposit. To further understand the petrological characteristics, mineral composition, and petrogenesis of the boundary claystone, this paper aims to identify the minerals composition, discuss the sedimentary environment and sediment source, and propose a comprehensive prospecting direction for key metal minerals using XRD analysis, TIMA analysis, and detailed geochemical research. The results demonstrate that the T2/T3 boundary claystone in the Zhenba area is mainly composed of quartz, illite, and kaolinite, with small amounts of chlorite, montmorillonite, and sudoite. The major elemental characteristics (SiO2, Al2O3, TFe2O3, TiO2) indicate that the boundary claystone belongs to bauxite mudstone. The CIA (chemical index of alteration) and ICV (index of compositional variability) values range from 85 to 93 and 0.22 to 0.46, respectively, indicating that the sedimentary parent rock has undergone significant chemical weathering processes. Currently, the claystone found in unconformities in China includes iron-aluminum claystone, aluminum claystone, and bauxite rock. These represent ancient weathering crust sediments, and important metal minerals such as lithium (Li), gallium (Ga), rare earth elements (REE), and niobium (Nb) are produced. The formation age is primarily Carboniferous-Permian, exhibiting characteristics of multi-element comprehensive mineralization. This paper suggests that comprehensive exploration of claystone on unconformity surfaces should be strengthened in the future to facilitate new breakthroughs in prospecting.

    • 战略性非金属矿产
    • SHAN Jun-jie, HUANG Shi-lin, BI You-yi, DENG Mei-zhou, YAN Huan-rong, HENG Yong, ZHENG Yan

      2024,43(1):63-73, DOI: 10.20086/j.cnki.yskw.2024.0105

      Abstract:

      The Jurassic Shaximiao Formation and Triassic Xujiahe Formation in the Sichuan Basin serve as key replacement areas for increased storage and production of onshore tight gas resources. They possess substantial reserves that are challenging to exploit and hold significant exploration and development potential. However, extensive and ongoing exploratory drilling and development have led to significant water production from wells in both the shallow Shaximiao Formation and the deeper Xujiahe Formation gas reservoirs. This water production has severely constrained the gas production capacity of these wells, with some wells even ceasing production due to water flooding. This study conducted an analysis of the formation water from 34 gas wells at various stratigraphic levels in the study area, focusing on major and trace elements, as well as the evolutionary characteristics of the reservoirs. The results indicate that both the Shaximiao Formation and the Xujiahe Formation gas reservoirs underwent an evolutionary process of initial formation, subsequent compaction, and subsequent modification. Fault connectivity resulted in significant upwelling of formation water from the deep Xujiahe Formation, leading to substantial infiltration into highly permeable sand bodies adjacent to faults. Under the influence of hydrodynamics and other driving forces, natural gas efficiently migrated vertically along fault zones in either a free or dissolved phase. Vertically, the majority of ion concentrations increased progressively with depth. The deep Xujiahe Formation gas reservoirs exhibit favorable conditions for oil and gas preservation and have undergone more complex water-rock interactions, causing varying degrees of enrichment in elements such as K, Ba, Sr, Li, and Rb.

    • 综述与进展
    • SHI Rui, ZHANG Hong-rui

      2024,43(1):74-88, DOI: 10.20086/j.cnki.yskw.2024.0106

      Abstract:

      The data-driven scientific model based on big data and artificial intelligence technology has promoted the transformation of Earth science research. As an important branch of Earth science, modern mineral deposits has accumulated a large amount of data after more than 100 years of development. The flow and sharing of these data is the key to realizing its resource value. In this paper, we introduce databases related to mineral deposits in various countries, such as China's "Geological Cloud" and Global Mineral Resource Reserve Dynamic Assessment Database, Australia's Deep Earth Exploration Program AuScope,the United States Mineral Resources Online Spatial Database, Geofaces Database of Society of Economic Geologists (SEG) and the SNL Metals & Mining Database.Meanwhile, we also introduce several important progresses made by applying big data and artificial intelligence methods in regional metallogenic regularity, genetic mechanism of ore deposit, discrimination of deposit type, resource potential evaluation and strategic consultation. This paper puts that it is imperative to integrate global massive data to build an open, shared and unified big data platform for mineral deposits database in the framework of the Deep-time Digital Earth (DDE) Big Science Program.

    • 环境矿物学
    • LIU Fang-fang, NIU Ji-nan

      2024,43(1):89-99, DOI: 10.20086/j.cnki.yskw.2024.0107

      Abstract:

      Fiber brucite is a unique natural hydroxide mineral fiber with the characteristics of strengthening, toughening, high-temperature resistance, and flame retardancy. It is widely used in fields such as construction, flame retardancy, and papermaking. The application of fiber brucite in high value-added products has important economic significance, and the application of fiber brucite is closely related to its mineralogical characteristics. The Heimulin fiber brucite deposit in Hanzhong, Shaanxi is currently the largest fiber brucite deposit in the world, and there is currently limited research on the mineralogical characteristics of fiber brucite in the region. By means of X-ray diffraction (XRD), X-ray fluorescence analysis (XRF), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), nitrogen adsorption desorption, and thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), this article studies the mineralogical characteristics and the changes in mineralogical characteristics of Heimulin fibrous brucite after heat treatment, providing a theoretical basis and scientific proof for the application of fibrous brucite, thereby further enhancing their economic value.

    • AO Xiang, XU Guan-li, LI Zhen, BAI Han

      2024,43(1):100-108, DOI: 10.20086/j.cnki.yskw.2024.0108

      Abstract:

      The phosphorus in phosphogypsum leaches out under the eluviation of rainwater and will pollute the waters near the storage site. In this study, biochar was used to solidify the phosphorus in phosphogypsum to reduce its impact on the surrounding waters. The experiment mainly included simulating solidification experiment and leaching out experiment, analyzed the effects of biochar dosage, reaction time and temperature, initial pH value on solidification effect. The products after solidification were analyzed by XRD and SEM-EDS. The results showed that the biochar had an obvious solidification effect on phosphorus in phosphogypsum, the maximum solidifying capacity per unit reached 13.20 mg/g; under the condition of T=293 K and initial pH=7, the reaction equilibrium time was 72 h, and the equilibrium phosphorus concentration of the leaching solution Ce=1.40 mg/L; the temperature increase was helpful to improve the solidifying effect of biochar, when the reaction temperature T=308 K, the equilibrium phosphorus concentration of the leaching solution Ce=0.167 mg/L; the alkaline condition was conducive to the continuous solidification reaction, under the condition of pH=11, the equilibrium phosphorus concentration of the leaching solution Ce=0.153 mg/L.The CaSO4·2 H2O in phosphogypsum was dissolved, Ca2+ was combined with the surface of biochar which is electronegative, chemical adsorbing phosphate radical in the solution, formed flocculent, clustered hydroxyapatite(HAP), the leaching phosphorus can be effectively controlled.

    • ZHONG Xiao-qin, HE Guang-xi, MA Xue, ZHU Xia-ping, REN Wei, ZHAO Ping

      2024,43(1):109-116, DOI: 10.20086/j.cnki.yskw.2024.0109

      Abstract:

      In order to study the passivation remediation effect of attapulgite-double-crosslinked hydrogel microspheres (SA/PVA/ATP) on cadmium contaminated soil, SA/PVA/ATP was added to cadmium contaminated soil with concentration of 3.72 mg/kg for flooding cultivation, using simulated acid rain, mixed extractant of diethylenetriamine pentaacetic acid (DTPA) and triethanolamine (TEA) (DTPA extractant) to extract available cadmium, and using sequential extraction method of the European Community Bureau of Standards (BCR) to extract different forms of cadmium in soil. The correlation between SA/PVA/ATP addition, available cadmium and various forms of cadmium in soil was discussed. The passivation capacity, remediation efficiency and heavy metal risk assessment index were calculated, and the passivation mechanism of SA/PVA/ATP on soil cadmium was explored. The results show that with the increase of the amount of SA/PVA/ATP, the available cadmium content of DTPA extractant and acid rain extraction decrease significantly from 1.72 mg/kg and 0.024 mg/kg to 0.66 mg/kg and 0.004 4 mg/kg respectively, the content of weak acid extractable and reducible cadmium in soil decrease significantly from 1.40 mg/kg and 0.81 mg/kg to 1.01 mg/kg and 0.41 mg/kg, respectively, while the content of oxidizable and residual cadmium increase significantly from 0.86 mg/kg and 0.63 mg/kg to 0.95 mg/kg and 1.27 mg/kg, respectively. The addition of material has a significant negative correlation with available cadmium, weakly acid extractable cadmium and reducible cadmium, while a significant positive correlation with oxidizable cadmium and residual cadmium. When the addition of SA/PVA/ATP is 2.0%, the maximum passivation capacity is 19.15 mg/kg, the maximum remediation efficiency is 34.89%, and the soil environment fall from high risk to medium risk. SA/PVA/ATP can reduce the bioavailability of cadmium and realize the passivation remediation of cadmium contaminated soil through transforming the weak acid extracted and reducible forms into oxidizable and residual forms in soil.

    • REN Xia, YAN Ning-zhen, LIU Jing

      2024,43(1):117-124, DOI: 10.20086/j.cnki.yskw.2024.0110

      Abstract:

      Metal nano ferrous sulfide (FeS) has broad application prospects in heavy/metalloid remediation. Using Acidiphilum cryptum iron-reducing bacteria (JF-5) and sulfate-reducing bacteria (SRB) to synthesize biological nano-FeS, to explore its natural sedimentation law, and to use sodium carboxymethyl cellulose (CMC) as a stabilizer to explore CMC-FeS mobility characteristics in quartz sand columns. The results showed that the nano-FeS could be formed by mixing SRB and JF-5 bacterial solution with certain proportions, and when the n(Fe):n(S)=0.2 in the mixed bacterial solution, the amount of FeS was the largest with 2 400 mg/L of the particle concentration; the natural sedimentation rate of FeS could be effectively slowed down in 0.1% CMC solution. The convection diffusion model can well describe the migration behavior of CMC-FeS suspended particles in quartz sand columns. Compared with the purewater-FeS system (R2=0.20), the model correlation was as high as 0.85. Under three imput flow rates (90, 180 and 360 mL/h), the medium flow rate could obtain the best permeability, and the average permeability coefficient was 243.97 cm/h. Therefore, the stability and migration of CMC-FeS have been enhanced compared with the purewater-FeS, which may provide a theoretical reference for soil pollution remediation.

    • LU Hua-long, HUO Guang-xiang, DUAN Yong-hua, GOU Ming-lei, LIU Jun-na, LIU Chen

      2024,43(1):125-130, DOI: 10.20086/j.cnki.yskw.2024.0111

      Abstract:

      In order to produce alkaline filtrate from potassium feldspar hydrothermal preparation of potassium nepheline, the effects of dissolution time, crystallization time, crystallization temperature and water-alkali ratio on the yield and whiteness of potassium nepheline were investigated by hydrothermal method. The results show that the optimum conditions for the synthesis of potassium nepheline are as follows: the dissolution time of alumina hydroxide is 1.5 hours, the crystallization time is 4 hours, the crystallization temperature is 280℃, and the water-alkali ratio is 1.8. XRD spectrum shows the product is kaliophilite owder. FTIR spectrum shows that Al in Al(OH)3 enters the Si—O framework to form Si—O—Al functional groups under hydrothermal conditions, thus confirming the synthesis of kaliophilite. The result of DTG indicates that the kaliophilite synthesized has good thermal stability. Isotherm indicates that the surface area of synthetic kaliophilite is 5.18 m2/g and the average pore size is 32.98 nm. The alkaline filtrate produced by hydrothermal preparation of potassium nepheline by potassium feldspar was realized as resource utilization, and a kind of mother liquor circulation idea was provided for hydrothermal preparation of potassium nepheline by potassium feldspar. The industrialization of hydrothermal preparation of potassium nepheline has become a possibility.

    • 综合资料
    • CAI Jian-hui

      2024,43(1):131-198, DOI: 10.20086/j.cnki.yskw.2024.0112

      Abstract:

      The paper is a systematic collection of 122 new minerals approved by the Commission on New Minerals,Nomenclature and Classification (CNMNC) of the International Mineralogical Association(IMA) in 2011, by listing mineral name, crystallochemical formula,crystal structure data,physical and optical properties, locality of origin and occurrence, relationship with other minerals, source of mineral names, chemical reaction and spectroscopic characteristics. It's very meaningful that Chinese names of 122 new minerals have been examined and revised under the authority of Chinese Commission of New Minerals and Mineral Names. As a part of the comprehensive introduction to discovery and research of new minerals in the world,this paper will provide reference for the work of discovering, researching and naming new minerals in China and promote the standardization of Chinese names of mineral species.

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    Volume 43,2024 Issue 1
      专题研究
    • LI Ming-ze, QIN Yu-long, LI Zheng, XU Yun-feng, WU Wen-hui, LIU Wei, YE Ya-kang, ZHOU Xiong

      2018,37(3):366-378, DOI:

      Abstract:

      This paper discusses the petrogenesis of the two-mica granite and its genetic relationship with pegmatite in Jiajika area, west Sichuan Province, by detailed field investigation and laboratory analysis. The whole rock analytical results show that SiO2 content of two-mica granite is 73.93%~75.06%, and total alkali is 7.90%~8.36% with high concentration of K, suggesting high-K calc-alkaline series; the content of Al2O3 is 14.24%~14.77%, and A/CNK=1.14~1.24, implying strong peraluminous S type granite; ΣREE=31.18×10-6~41.67×10-6,LREE/HREE=4.15~6.41,δEu=0.46~0.70, and CaO/Na2O=0.07~0.12(<0.3),indicating that its source might have been pelite with rare content of psammite, and high ratio of Al2O3/TiO2 (133.1~279.8) implies that it is high-pressure-low-temperature post-collision granite. The SiO2 content of the granite pegmatite is 72.59%~80.91%, the total alkali is 5.26%~10.60%, Al2O3 is 11.79%~17.64%, σ=0.74~3.80; A/CNK=0.98~2.38; ΣREE=4.03×10-6~8.29×10-6, LREE/HREE=2.61~10.40, and δEu=0.18~0.68. There are considerable differences between two-mica granite and granite pegmatite in the aspect of the content of major and trace elements. And there is close genetic relationship between granite and pegmatite in the area. Magma immiscibility might be the key factor for the formation of (ore-bearing) granite pegmatite. The pegmatite melt riched in volatile components might be separated during the upwelling of granite magma and metasomatized minerals in wall rock to further concentrate rare metal elements during its migration. The difference between two-mica granite and pegmatite might cause the apparent differences in REEs and elements such as Th, Sr, Ti, Y, Rb and Nb. The different characteristics of pathways and environments that the pegmatite melt passed and emplaced might have resulted in element concentration variance in different sites. In comparison with two-mica granite, there existed a certain degree of jumping characteristic during the formation and evolution of the pegmatite in Jiajika area.

    • 宝玉石矿物学
    • GAN Yuan-lu, WANG Chao-wen, LEI Xin-rong, LI Zhuo-yang, WANG Hui-ning, ZHANG Yun-yun, LI Yi-long

      2015,34(3):418-426, DOI:

      Abstract:

      Guilin Chicken Blood Red Jasper (CBRJ) is a kind of quartz jasper. It is characterized by bright red to black colors and high hardness. However, few researches have been focused on the field occurrence, geological background, rock structure and genesis of its color. Field surveys indicate that the Guilin CBRJ is hosted in low-grade metamorphic sandstones which experienced vapor-water hydrothermal metamorphism and iron oxide dissemination. It occurs in the Sanmenjie Formation of Neoproterozoic Danzhou Group in Longsheng area in the north of Guangxi. Tectonically, the ore deposit of Guilin CBRJ is located at the juncture of Yangtze and Cathaysian plates, which has undergone a complex geological process. Its formation was related to multi-phase tectono-magmatic activities from Neoproterozoic to Triassic. Detailed analyses of mineralogy, micro-texture and geochemical composition of Guilin CBRJ were carried out by polarizing microscope, X-ray diffraction, and electronic microprobe. The results indicate that the CBRJ is mainly composed of quartz and hematite, with dolomites in some samples. Quartz grains exhibit two types of allotriomorphic equigranular texture and idiomorphic porphyroblastic texture. The latter one, in which distinct enlargement texture can be observed, reveals a metasomatic metamorphism phase. Hematite occurs in three types: ① single crystal existent between or inside the quartz particles, ② dusty crystals wrapped in the quartz particles, and ③ disseminated crystals filled between the quartz particles. The Fe3+ in the hematite should be responsible for the color of the CBRJ. Electron microprobe analysis shows that the hematites of single crystal and disseminated crystals have 78.9%~85.6% iron oxides, but the dusty crystal is too small to be analyzed. In combination with the different generations of quartz and hematite, the authors have reached the conclusion that the formation of different types of these minerals in the Guilin CBRJ was consistent with the regionally geological evolution in this area.

    • 专题研究
    • ZHANG Li-cheng, WANG Yi-tian, CHEN Xue-feng, MA Shi-qing, WANG Zhi-hua, YU Chang-fa

      2013,32(4):431-449, DOI:

      Abstract:

      The Hongyuntan iron deposit is hosted in pyroclastic rocks of the Lower Carboniferous Yamansu Formation. The ore bodies occur as layers, stratoid bodies or lenses. The principal ore mineral is magnetite, together with minor maghemite, specularite, pyrite and trace chalcopyrite. The gangue minerals include garnet, diopside, actinolite, chlorite, tremolite, epidote, biotite, albite and quartz. The ore structures are mainly of massive and disseminated forms, with occasional banded or veined forms. The ore textures are of subhedral-anhedral granular and metasomatic types. The wall rock alteration shows symmetrical zoning, and the alteration colors change from dark to light from ore bodies outwards. On the basis of observed mineral assemblages and ore fabrics, two periods of ore deposition were recognized, i.e., skarn period and hydrothermal ore-forming period, which could be further subdivided into four metallogenic stages, namely skarn stage, retrograde alteration stage (main ore-forming stage), early hydrothermal stage and quartz-sulfide stage. Electron microprobe analyses show that the end member of garnet is mainly andradite-grossularite. The composition of pyroxene is mainly diopside-asteroite. The amphiboles is composed mainly of actinolite and tremolite with minor magnesiohornblende. The composition of these skarn minerals suggests that skarn in the Hongyuntan iron deposit is calcic skarn, belonging to metasomatic skarn. The characteristics of main and trace elements suggest that the formation of magnetite was closely related to the skarn. In combination with geological characteristics, the authors suggest that the skarn might have resulted from interaction between Ca-rich pyroclastic and Fe-rich magmatic hydrothermal fluid which was transported along the fault system. The formation of magnetite was hence related to the regressive metamorphism of the skarn.

    • Gan Guoliang Yichang Institute of Geology, Mineral Resources, Chinese Academy of Geological Sciences Department of Grologicol, Atmospheric Sciences, lows State Univeraity, Ames, IAS0011, U.S.A

      1993,12(2):144-181, DOI:

      Abstract:

      This paper presents partition coefficients of 69 chemical elements (Li, Rb,Cs, K, Na, Ca, Ba, Sr, Mn, Fe, Mg, Cu, Pb, Zn, Co, Ni, Be, La, Ce, Nd,Sm, Eu, Gd, Tb, Dy, Ho, Er, Tm, Yb, Lu, Y, Sc, Cr, In, Ga, Al, B,Cd, Sb, Bi, U, Th, Zr, Hf, Si, Ti, Ge, Sn, Mo, Nb, Ta, W, V, P, F, Cl,S, N, O, C, As, Pu, Re, Os, He, Ne, Ar, Kr and Xe) and the univalent radical (OH) in 28 minerals (olivine, clinopyroxene, orthopyroxene, amphibole,biotite, Phlogopite, plagiocla-se, K--feldspar, quartz, magnetite, ilmenite, garnet,zircon, apatite, allanite, topaz, sphene, cordierite, hauyne, leucite, nepheline,whit-lockite, brookite, petovskite, melilite, armalcolite, spinel and rutile) from 8 types of rocks, namely metaluminous (ultra) basic rock, peralkaline (ultra) basic rock, metaluminous intermediate rock, peralkaline intermediate rock,metaluminous acid rock, peralkaline acid rock, peraluminous acid rock and ultra-acid rock. It is found through an integrated ahalysis and comparison that the composition and structure of minnerals and melts seem to be the most important factors controlling mineral-melt element partitioning. Importanceshould be attached to minral structure and Al-supersaturation of melt which have, not been discussed by research workers. Finally, the present state and theproblems to be solved in the study of mineral--melt element partition coefficients are analysed, and the future trends of this research field are predibted.

    • 综合资料
    • ZHANG Xi-huan, REN Yu-feng

      2008,27(2):135-151, DOI:

      Abstract:

      本文以表格的形式列举了经国际矿物学协会(IMA)新矿物与矿物命名委员会(CNMMN)批准、并于2003年度正式发表的新矿物共55种,其中硅酸盐31种,磷酸盐5种,砷酸盐2种,硫酸盐4种,硫化物3种,碳酸盐2种,钒酸盐2种,硼酸盐1种,硒化物1种,硫盐1种,氧化物1种,氢氧化物1种,复杂卤化物1种.文中表格依次列出了矿物的中外文名称及化学式、晶系及晶胞参数、主要粉晶数据、物理性质、光学性质、产状及共生(伴生)组合等.

    • SHEN Qi-han

      2009,28(5):495-500, DOI:

      Abstract:

      This paper has mainly recommended a mineral abbreviation list (see Table 2 and Table 3). Table 2, which contains 243 minerals, was compiled by IUGS Subcommittee on the Systematic of Metamorphic Rocks (SCMR) in 2007. The author selected other 29 minerals and, on such a basis, formulated Table 3. Thus, the total mineral abbreviations come to 272. It is hoped that they can be popularized in future and become more and more perfect through utilization, so as to provide a basis for ultimate standardization and unification.

    • 方法与应用
    • XU Jie, ZHANG Gui-bin, LI Nan, LIN Meng, WANG Jia-xing

      2020,39(3):323-334, DOI:

      Abstract:

      The combination of multi-collector inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (MC-ICPMS) and laser ablation provides a useful tool for tracing the geological process by analyzing minerals under microscales. As one of the non-traditional stable isotopes, boron isotope has attracted more and more attention. In this study, the authors developed an in-situ method for high-precision analysis of B isotope in tourmaline with high-content boron and muscovite with low-content boron. Tourmaline and glass reference materials were applied to correcting the mass fractionation respectively, and in-situ B isotopes of two natural samples from southwestern Tianshan were also tested. In addition, the boron isotope of the in-house standard T-PKU was calibrated as -13.07‰±0.42‰ (2SD, n=66). The above testing results reveal that the condition of LA-MC-ICPMS is stable for a long term and suitable to producing high quality data about tourmaline with minimum spot size of 10 μm and muscovite with > 20×10-6 B concentration. The B isotopes of tourmaline and paragonite in Tianshan samples are helpful for tracing fluids sources.

    • 专题研究
    • HE Shi-ping, WANG Hong-liang, XU Xue-yi, ZHANG Hong-fei, REN Guang-ming

      2007,26(4):295-309, DOI:

      Abstract:

      Early Paleozoic volcanic rocks in Tianshui and Baoji areas along the eastern segment of North Qilian orogenic belt consists of Hongtubu basaltic lavas and Chenjiahe intermediate-acid volcanic rocks. Geochemical analyses show that Hongtubu basaltic lavas are similar to the intercalated basalts in Chenjiahe intermediate-acid volcanic rocks in characteristics, both fallen in the tholeiite series with high TiO2 (1.50%~2.73%). Their∑REE are 65.97×10-6~133.46×10-6 and 78.04×10-6~175.55×10-6 respectively, both are slightly enriched in LREE [(La/YbN being 2.00~4.40 and 2.71~4.40 respectively],and both have no obvious Eu anomaly or weak Eu negative anomaly(δEu being 0.85~1.10 and 0.85~0.99 respectively). Basalts from two groups are typically characterized by selected enrichment of LILEs, low abundances of HFSEs relative to NMORB, and prominent troughs of Nb and Ta, with low Nb/La ratio(0.28~0.43), which indicates the affinity of these volcanic rocks to island arc tholeiite(IAT). In addition, εNd(t)(+2.22~+4.08)values of basalts suggest that their mantle sources are similar to the depleted mantle source. Zr/Nb=17.21~36.33 and Ce/Nb=5.73~8.17, implying geochemical characteristics of N-MORB. Sr, Nd and Pb isotopes from Hongtubu basalts are similar to those in Chenjiahe basalts in composition. In the diagrams of εNd(t)-(87Sr/86Sr)t, (207Pb/204Pb)t-(206Pb/204Pb)t,(87Sr/86Sr)t-(206Pb/204Pb)t and εNd(t)-(206Pb/204Pb)t for basalts, the data are fallen in the DM, EMⅠand EMⅡ areas, probably with a little crustalontamination, indicating that the magma of basalts might have had a mixed gin.Thentermediate-acid volcanic rocks from Chenjiahe belong to the calc-alkaline series,they have relatively high abundances of REE∑REE=127.51×10-6~276.01×10-6), and are significantly enriched in LREE[(La/YbN= 4.79~13.51]. Most intermediate-acid volcanic rocks show weak Eu negative anomaly (δEu=0.53~1.20). The trace element patterns of Chenjiahe acid volcanic rocks are similar to those of the ocean ridge granite (ORG), with marked troughs of Nb, Ta, Zr and Hf. A synthetic study shows that the Chenjiahe intermediate-acid volcanic rocks in the eastern segment of North Qilian orogenic belt were formed in an island-arc setting, whereas the Hongtubu basalts were formed in an intra-arc rift setting (or an initial back-arc basin setting), probably being products of the early spreading evolution of the island_arc system towards the back-arc basin in the eastern segment of North Qilian during late Early Paleozoic. The results obtained provide evidence for the existence of the trench-arc-basin system at the juncture of Qilian and North Qinling orogenic belts.

    • 宝玉石矿物学
    • YAN Ruogu, QIU Zhili, DONG Chuanwan, LI Liufen

      2009,28(3):292-298, DOI:

      Abstract:

      High grade black jadeite is a kind of upscale and fashionable jade material that has become one of the jadeites characterized by fastest growing values in the past 20 years. Based on a comparison of mineralogical and geochemical characteristics between black jadeites (inky black jades)from different producing areas of the world, the authors hold that the black jadeites currently on the market can be mainly classified into jadeite jade, omphacitic jadeite jade and hornblende jade whose main components are jadeite, omphacite and dark green hornblende respectively. They include black chicken jade, ink jadeite and black kosmochlor from Myanmar and jade negro and galactic gold from Guatemala, with black chicken jades similar to those from Myanmar also seen in Japan and Kazakhstan. The research results suggest that the main mineral composition, jade structure and inclusion characteristic combinations of black jadeite jades from different producing areas have their respective typomorphic natures, which can be used as the distinctive characteristics for their sources.

    • 环境矿物学
    • XING Run-hua, SUI Xin-xin

      2022,41(1):185-194, DOI:

      Abstract:

      The geochemical characteristics and abnormal sources of As, Cd, Cr, Cu, Hg, Ni, Pb and Zn in the soil of Southern Xuancheng were analyzed and studied by using the 1:250 000 land quality geochemical survey data. It is found that the geological background is the main controlling factor for the content of soil elements, and that the spatial distribution characteristics of heavy metal elements in the surface and deep soil in the area are significantly consistent with the geological background and sedimentary environment. The high content of heavy metal in the soil parent rock geological background (Hetang Formation, Piyuancun Formation and Lantian Formation, etc) is the main influencing factor for the high anomaly of soil heavy metal elements. In addition, mining and atmospheric dry and wet deposition are also one of the factors affecting high anomaly of heavy metals in soil. It is found that Pb, Hg, Cd and Cr in soil have input sources of atmospheric dry and wet deposition. The main impact index of heavy metal in soil pollution risk in the survey areas was Cd. The proportion of samples that soil Cd exceeded the control value of soil pollution risk of agricultural land was 2.56%. The morphological analysis results show that soil Cd is mainly in ion-exchange state. Combined with crops investigation, it is found that there is a certain ecological risk in the area with high abnormal soil Cd.

    • 专题研究
    • LIN Bin, TANG Ju-xing, ZHENG Wen-bao, LENG Qiu-feng, LIN Xin, WANG Yi-yun, MENG Zhan, TANG Pan, DING Shuai, XU Yun-feng, YUAN Mei

      2016,35(3):391-406, DOI:

      Abstract:

      The Cuonadong leucogranite is one of the most important parts of North Himalayan leucogranite belt. Geochemical data show that Cuonadong leucogranite is the calcium alkaline and strong peraluminous granite with high silica (SiO2 is 74.20%~74.52%), poor iron (Fe2O3 is 0.04%~0.20%, FeO 0.04%~0.58%), poor magnesium (MgO is 0.06%~0.14%), and calcium alkaline (σ is 2.15~2.32) as well as strong peraluminous nature (A/CNK is 1.11~1.15). Its total rare earth is relatively low (∑REE is 47.24×10-6~57.59×10-6), with enrichment of LREE (LREE is 39.85×10-6~49.23×10-6), depletion of HREE (HREE is 6.91×10-6~8.68×10-6) and obvious negative Eu anomaly (0.49~0.80). It is characterized by an enrichment of some large ion lithophile elements (Rb, Th, U, K) and loss of high field strength elements (Nb, Ta, Zr Ti). Zircon U-Pb dating results show that the Cuonadong leucogranite's formation time is Miocene (21 Ma), which belongs to the peak of the late stage of north Himalayan leucogranite (24~12 Ma). Zircon εHf(t) values are negative with a wide variation (-3.92~-17.64), which shows that its magma source was the crust, mostly from the metapelite, with the probable mixing of many kinds of materials in its source. The petrogenesis of Cuonadong leucogranite is that the high Himalayan crystalline rock series experienced decompression melting during the rapid pull-back of the plate in the post-collision tectonic setting, with the initial magma crystallization temperature being 675~702℃.

    • PAN Rong-hao, ZHU Lei, WANG Si-jia, WANG Ji-chen, WU Jia-yi, HOU Tong

      2022,41(3):519-536, DOI:

      Abstract:

      Quantitatively determining the timescale during mantle-derived magma ascent from the source to eruption or emplacement is essential for the understanding of magmatism, however, the timescales of eruption/emplacement are still poorly constrained. Shanxi Datong Cenozoic volcanic field, north of the North China Craton, is an ideal area for the investigation. In this study, we focused on the mantle olivine xenocrysts entrained in ca. 0.2 Ma Shenquansi alkali basalt, and its timescale of residence in the host magma prior to eruption. According to mineral chemistry, cores of these mantle olivine xenocrysts have Fo values up to 97.7, which can be defined as extremely magnesian olivine. They are also characterized by the extremely low contents in Ca, Mn and Ni, suggesting they were captured from metasomatized mantle peridotite. Moreover, both of the mantle olivine xenocrysts display complex CaO profiles, attributed to complex magmatic processes in the magma plumbing system. The reaction rim widths of one olivine xenocryst vary significantly, implying it has experienced multiple crack processes when captured or dur- ing transport. The Fo values of the mantle olivine xenocrysts rims are about 70, indicating they are in diffusion equilibrium with the host magma (alkali basalt) at rims. Timescales obtained by Fe-Mg diffusion chronometry of olivine mantle xenocrysts show that they have only resided in the magma for months. For a lithospheric mantle thickness of 40~70 km, the fastest average ascent rate may exceed 500 m/d.

    • CAO Guang-yue, XUE Huai-min, WANG Jin-guang

      2014,33(6):1019-1038, DOI:

      Abstract:

      In this paper,LA-ICP-MS zircon U-Pb dating was carried out for four samples of volcanic rocks from Qingshan Group in Jiaodong area and, as a result, their concordant ages were obtained, which are 119.4±0.9 Ma, 118.2±1.0 Ma,120.2±0.9 Ma and 120.0±0.8 Ma, respectively. The results show that all the volcanic rocks in Jiaodong area were formed from about 120 Ma to 118 Ma in the Early Cretaceous period. The ages of Qingshan Group volcanic rocks from Shandong Province controlled by Tan-Lu fault are similar to those from the Su-Wan segment of the Tan-Lu fault zone,but younger than those around the Tan-Lu fault zone,which indicates that the duration of volcanic eruption along Tan-Lu fault is probably longer than the duration in other areas under the background of lithospheric thinning in eastern China. Geochemically, all the intermediate and acidic volcanic rocks have high K2O, ALK, LREE values and low MgO, TiO2, Ni, Cr, HREE values. According to the geochemical features, the volcanic rocks can be subdivided into trachyte-trachydacite and rhyolite. The trachyte-trachydacite is characterized by LILE enrichment(Rb,Ba,K)and HFSE depletion(Nb,Ta,Ti,P), but the rhyolite exhibits stronger depletion of Ba,Sr and HFSE (Ti,P). Compared with the rhyolite,the trachyte-trachydacite possesses higher Sr and Ba values as well as La/Nb and Ba/Nb ratios,but lower Rb/Ba ratios and δEu values. All these data indicate that they might have been derived from different magma sources. It is inferred that the trachyte-trachydacite rocks were derived from the mixture of the partial melting of the lower crust(Yangtze Craton or North China Craton)and enriched lithospheric mantle. In addition, the rhyolites were related to the partial melting of the lower crust in the regional extension environment and high geothermal anomaly background with crystallization differentiation during the magma evolution.

    • 综述与进展
    • ZHANG Wei

      2014,33(4):747-762, DOI:

      Abstract:

      Cordierite is a mineral material characterized by low thermal expansion coefficient and good thermal shock resistance. Cordierite mineral material is relatively rare in nature, so cordierite is synthesized usually by the method of artificial synthesis. Based on the newest investigation results of synthetic cordierite, this paper deals with the progress of researches on such synthesis methods of cordierite as high purity oxide solid reaction at high temperature, natural mineral solid reaction at high temperature, the utilization of industrial wasted materials, the employment of agricultural wasted materials, the sol-gel and the low-temperature combustion synthesis. At present, the method of natural mineral solid reaction at high temperature is used for the preparation of cordierite in industry. In spite of a lot of advantages, this method also has many disadvantages. Therefore, the development trend of cordierite synthesis seems to solve the problem as to how to apply other synthesis methods to industrial preparation.

    • 宝玉石矿物学
    • GUO Li-he, HAN Jing-yi, LUO Hong-yu

      2006,25(4):349-356, DOI:

      Abstract:

      At present, the infrared transmission spectroscopy is the best technique for determining whether jadeite is polymer-impregnated or not, and the infrared reflectance spectroscopy is a nondestructive and rapid determination method that provides mainly the fundamental frequency vibration spectra data of minerals and shows new application potentials in gemological research, especially in the identification of gem species. The gemological application of IR reflectance spectroscopy and the identification system of IR spectra of gems, including a database of 318 spectra and a searching and identifying program, are described in this paper.

    • 专题研究
    • LIN Guang-chun

      2013,32(4):485-495, DOI:

      Abstract:

      Petrology, geochemical and Nd isotopic data are reported for the Neoproterozoic Danba metabasalt in the Kangdian Rift on the western margin of the Yangtze block. Samples were collected from alkaline basalts, which are enriched in MgO, TiO2, with Mg# being 0.51~0.59. They have high total rare earth elements and show high fractionation between LREE and HREE. The trace elements are characterized obviously by enrichment of Th, Nb, Ta, Zr, Hf and LREE but depletion of Y and HREE. Their geochemical and Nd isotopic characteristics suggest that they are similar to OIB. The basaltic magma was generated in an intraplate setting, and was generated by partial melting of OIB mantle source region, with variable degrees of contamination of SCLM during magma ascending; in addition, some samples might have experienced contamination of the lower crust. These samples reveal some plume magmatism characteristics in petrochemistry, and imply that magmatism was probably related to the Neoproterozoic plume event, which resulted in the breakup of Rodinia supercontinent.

    • ZHANG Kan, ZHU Xiang-kun

      2013,32(4):529-537, DOI:

      Abstract:

      The newly-exposed lower strata of the Xiamaling Formation near Tielingzi Village in Jixian County contain rich siderites. This paper reports the basic geological characteristics of these siderite-rich strata in terms of the field outcrop, petrology and major elements. Studies show that the profile is characterized by black shale interbedded with silty iron-rich layers/siderite concrete layers, and also has minor siltstone. Some iron-rich strata have turned into limonite layers in the outcrop because of intense weathering. Siderite is the main iron mineral phase in the strata. Siderites can form iron concretes, showing micritic or microcrystalline granulitic textures under the microscope, or form silty ferruginous layers with almost a comparable amount of silty quartz; it can also distributed sporadically in siltstone and black shale with relatively coarse particles. There also exists very little siderite residue in weathered limonite layers. The overall features of major elements show that the strata are rich in SiO2, TFe and TOC, but poor in MnO, CaO, MgO, P2O5 and S. Except for ferriciron in weathered layers, there is mainly ferrous iron in the strata. The TOC content decreases in order of siderite concrete, silty iron-rich layer, black shale and siltstone. The correlation diagram between TFe and Al2O3 content shows a negative correlation in iron-rich layers, while a positive correlation between them exists in normal black shale and siltstone, which suggests that iron in the former form originated from the ocean itself, while iron in the latter form originated mainly from terrigenous detritus. In addition, FeO content has a positive correlation with TOC content in fresh samples, which implies that the genesis of siderites may have some relationship with organic matter.

    • 其他
    • LUO Yue-ping, DENG Wang-hui, DUAN Ti-yu, WANG Chun-sheng

      2011,30(Z1):181-186, DOI:

      Abstract:

      As more and more treated turquoises appear on Chinese gem market, the authors collected lots of turquoises from different deposits on Chinese gem market in order to sum up the characteristics of the natural turquoises on Chinese gem market. At the same time, different types of treated turquoises were studied to find general difference between them and natural turquoises. The results show that natural turquoise and treated turquoise have different shades of color, inclusions and appearances. IR spectra of both natural and treated turquoises were studied, indicating that there are absorption peaks at 1 735, 1 600 and 1?500 cm-1 in treated turquoises, which are caused by the man-made polymer. If the turquoise is treated by polymer, there are absorption peaks at 1 735, 1 600 and1 500 cm-1 in a turquoise, and this can serve as convincing evidence in this aspect.

    • TAO Ji_xiong 1, HU Feng_xiang 1, CHEN Zhi_yong 1, 2

      2003,22(2):112-118, DOI:

      Abstract:

      Indosinian S-type granites are widely distributed in central Inner Mongolia on the northern margin of North China landmass. Spread in nearly EW direction, the granites have formed a gigantic compound granite belt, with porphyritic biotite-admellite and moyite being the two main types. SiO2is abundant, Al2O3is 12.38%~15.34%. A/NKC (molecule ratio)>1.1, K2O/Na2O=1.1~3.1,δ=1.9~2.6,ΣREE is 45.778 ×10-6~486.501×10-6, andδEu=0.1~0.8. A series of zircon U-Pb surface ages (207~227 Ma) for the granites have been recently obtained from 1/50 000 regional geological survey. As the lithofacies and geochemical characteristics of the granites are similar to those of S-type granites, the authors conclude that the Indosinian granite in this area was formed in a post-collision setting instead of in the setting of syn-collision between North China plate and Siberia plate.

    • Zhou Zheng

      1997,16(1):81-90, DOI:

      Abstract:

      From the discovery of the first new mineral hsianghualite in 1958 to the end of 1995,74 new minerals found in China had been approved by IMA CNMMN. Among them, 2/3 were discovered after 1981. The discovery of new minerals in China has the following features:(1) With the development of analytical methods, the number of new minerals discovered per year increases gradually: from the end of 1950s to 1960s, only one new mineral was discovered every year on the average, whereas from 1980s till now, three new minerals were discovered averagely every year. (2) The structures of many new minerals have been determined. (3) Most of the new minerals are in the lower category, mainly in the monoclinic system, and perfect crystals are rare; hsianghualite has the most abundant crystal faces, whose ideal faces can reach 146. (4) Among those new minerals, silicates take the first place in number, followed by native elements, alloys, and then oxides. (5) The modes of occurrence of new minerals are varied, most of them occurring in oxidized zones of various deposits and deposits related to ma fic or ultramafic rock masses. There are a few new minerals occurring in skarn and placer deposits or even in cosmic dusts and meteorite.(6) The new minerals are characterized by wide but uneven distribution. Till now, new minerals have been discovered in 20 provinces or autonomous regions, especially in Hebei, Qinghai, Inner Mongolia and Henan. The number of new minerals found in North China is larger than that found in South Chine. (7) The number of discoverers of new minerals is in tens. The first discoverer of new mineral is Prof. Huang Yunhui, whereas Prof. Yu Zuxiang is the one who discovered the most numerous new minerals in China, totally disclosing 11 new minerals by himself or together with other experts. Most of the discoverers are members of the Chinese Academy of Geological Sciences, China University of Geosciences, and Institute of Geochemistry, Academia Sinica as well as other educational and scientific research institutions. The discovery of new minerals has promoted the development of mineralogy in China. Tens of discoverers were awardees of the National Natural Sciences Prize or the Science and Technology Progress Prize of the Ministry of Geology and Mineral Resources for the discovery and research results of new minerals in 1980s. More than 60 new mineals discovered in China were collected by the Geological Museum of China, with some of them exhibited in the Minerals and Rocks Exhibiting Room.

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    Editor:Zengqian Hou

    ISSN 1000-6524

    CN 11-1966/P