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  • 1  Geochemical characteristics of two-mica granite and granite pegmatite in Jiajika area, western Sichuan, and their geological implications
    LI Ming-ze QIN Yu-long LI Zheng XU Yun-feng WU Wen-hui LIU Wei YE Ya-kang ZHOU Xiong
    2018, 37(3):366-378.
    [Abstract](1330) [HTML](0) [PDF 13.61 M](41251)
    Abstract:
    This paper discusses the petrogenesis of the two-mica granite and its genetic relationship with pegmatite in Jiajika area, west Sichuan Province, by detailed field investigation and laboratory analysis. The whole rock analytical results show that SiO2 content of two-mica granite is 73.93%~75.06%, and total alkali is 7.90%~8.36% with high concentration of K, suggesting high-K calc-alkaline series; the content of Al2O3 is 14.24%~14.77%, and A/CNK=1.14~1.24, implying strong peraluminous S type granite; ΣREE=31.18×10-6~41.67×10-6,LREE/HREE=4.15~6.41,δEu=0.46~0.70, and CaO/Na2O=0.07~0.12(<0.3),indicating that its source might have been pelite with rare content of psammite, and high ratio of Al2O3/TiO2 (133.1~279.8) implies that it is high-pressure-low-temperature post-collision granite. The SiO2 content of the granite pegmatite is 72.59%~80.91%, the total alkali is 5.26%~10.60%, Al2O3 is 11.79%~17.64%, σ=0.74~3.80; A/CNK=0.98~2.38; ΣREE=4.03×10-6~8.29×10-6, LREE/HREE=2.61~10.40, and δEu=0.18~0.68. There are considerable differences between two-mica granite and granite pegmatite in the aspect of the content of major and trace elements. And there is close genetic relationship between granite and pegmatite in the area. Magma immiscibility might be the key factor for the formation of (ore-bearing) granite pegmatite. The pegmatite melt riched in volatile components might be separated during the upwelling of granite magma and metasomatized minerals in wall rock to further concentrate rare metal elements during its migration. The difference between two-mica granite and pegmatite might cause the apparent differences in REEs and elements such as Th, Sr, Ti, Y, Rb and Nb. The different characteristics of pathways and environments that the pegmatite melt passed and emplaced might have resulted in element concentration variance in different sites. In comparison with two-mica granite, there existed a certain degree of jumping characteristic during the formation and evolution of the pegmatite in Jiajika area.
    2  Petrological and mineralogical characteristics and geological significance of Guilin Chicken Blood Red Jasper
    GAN Yuan-lu WANG Chao-wen LEI Xin-rong LI Zhuo-yang WANG Hui-ning ZHANG Yun-yun LI Yi-long
    2015, 34(3):418-426.
    [Abstract](1851) [HTML](0) [PDF 10.81 M](38762)
    Abstract:
    Guilin Chicken Blood Red Jasper (CBRJ) is a kind of quartz jasper. It is characterized by bright red to black colors and high hardness. However, few researches have been focused on the field occurrence, geological background, rock structure and genesis of its color. Field surveys indicate that the Guilin CBRJ is hosted in low-grade metamorphic sandstones which experienced vapor-water hydrothermal metamorphism and iron oxide dissemination. It occurs in the Sanmenjie Formation of Neoproterozoic Danzhou Group in Longsheng area in the north of Guangxi. Tectonically, the ore deposit of Guilin CBRJ is located at the juncture of Yangtze and Cathaysian plates, which has undergone a complex geological process. Its formation was related to multi-phase tectono-magmatic activities from Neoproterozoic to Triassic. Detailed analyses of mineralogy, micro-texture and geochemical composition of Guilin CBRJ were carried out by polarizing microscope, X-ray diffraction, and electronic microprobe. The results indicate that the CBRJ is mainly composed of quartz and hematite, with dolomites in some samples. Quartz grains exhibit two types of allotriomorphic equigranular texture and idiomorphic porphyroblastic texture. The latter one, in which distinct enlargement texture can be observed, reveals a metasomatic metamorphism phase. Hematite occurs in three types: ① single crystal existent between or inside the quartz particles, ② dusty crystals wrapped in the quartz particles, and ③ disseminated crystals filled between the quartz particles. The Fe3+ in the hematite should be responsible for the color of the CBRJ. Electron microprobe analysis shows that the hematites of single crystal and disseminated crystals have 78.9%~85.6% iron oxides, but the dusty crystal is too small to be analyzed. In combination with the different generations of quartz and hematite, the authors have reached the conclusion that the formation of different types of these minerals in the Guilin CBRJ was consistent with the regionally geological evolution in this area.
    3  Mineralogy, mineral chemistry and genesis of the Hongyuntan iron deposit in East Tianshan Mountians, Xinjiang
    ZHANG Li-cheng WANG Yi-tian CHEN Xue-feng MA Shi-qing WANG Zhi-hua YU Chang-fa
    2013, 32(4):431-449.
    [Abstract](7182) [HTML](0) [PDF 18.22 M](32805)
    Abstract:
    The Hongyuntan iron deposit is hosted in pyroclastic rocks of the Lower Carboniferous Yamansu Formation. The ore bodies occur as layers, stratoid bodies or lenses. The principal ore mineral is magnetite, together with minor maghemite, specularite, pyrite and trace chalcopyrite. The gangue minerals include garnet, diopside, actinolite, chlorite, tremolite, epidote, biotite, albite and quartz. The ore structures are mainly of massive and disseminated forms, with occasional banded or veined forms. The ore textures are of subhedral-anhedral granular and metasomatic types. The wall rock alteration shows symmetrical zoning, and the alteration colors change from dark to light from ore bodies outwards. On the basis of observed mineral assemblages and ore fabrics, two periods of ore deposition were recognized, i.e., skarn period and hydrothermal ore-forming period, which could be further subdivided into four metallogenic stages, namely skarn stage, retrograde alteration stage (main ore-forming stage), early hydrothermal stage and quartz-sulfide stage. Electron microprobe analyses show that the end member of garnet is mainly andradite-grossularite. The composition of pyroxene is mainly diopside-asteroite. The amphiboles is composed mainly of actinolite and tremolite with minor magnesiohornblende. The composition of these skarn minerals suggests that skarn in the Hongyuntan iron deposit is calcic skarn, belonging to metasomatic skarn. The characteristics of main and trace elements suggest that the formation of magnetite was closely related to the skarn. In combination with geological characteristics, the authors suggest that the skarn might have resulted from interaction between Ca-rich pyroclastic and Fe-rich magmatic hydrothermal fluid which was transported along the fault system. The formation of magnetite was hence related to the regressive metamorphism of the skarn.
    4  The recommendation of a systematic list of mineral abbreviations
    SHEN Qi-han
    2009, 28(5):495-500.
    [Abstract](11397) [HTML](0) [PDF 316.09 K](26890)
    Abstract:
    This paper has mainly recommended a mineral abbreviation list (see Table 2 and Table 3). Table 2, which contains 243 minerals, was compiled by IUGS Subcommittee on the Systematic of Metamorphic Rocks (SCMR) in 2007. The author selected other 29 minerals and, on such a basis, formulated Table 3. Thus, the total mineral abbreviations come to 272. It is hoped that they can be popularized in future and become more and more perfect through utilization, so as to provide a basis for ultimate standardization and unification.
    5  Mineral-Melt Element Partition Coefficients: Data and Major Variation Regularities
    Gan Guoliang Yichang Institute of Geology Mineral Resources Chinese Academy of Geological Sciences Department of Grologicol Atmospheric Sciences lows State Univeraity Ames IAS U.S.A
    1993, 12(2):144-181.
    [Abstract](9136) [HTML](0) [PDF 12.09 M](23530)
    Abstract:
    This paper presents partition coefficients of 69 chemical elements (Li, Rb,Cs, K, Na, Ca, Ba, Sr, Mn, Fe, Mg, Cu, Pb, Zn, Co, Ni, Be, La, Ce, Nd,Sm, Eu, Gd, Tb, Dy, Ho, Er, Tm, Yb, Lu, Y, Sc, Cr, In, Ga, Al, B,Cd, Sb, Bi, U, Th, Zr, Hf, Si, Ti, Ge, Sn, Mo, Nb, Ta, W, V, P, F, Cl,S, N, O, C, As, Pu, Re, Os, He, Ne, Ar, Kr and Xe) and the univalent radical (OH) in 28 minerals (olivine, clinopyroxene, orthopyroxene, amphibole,biotite, Phlogopite, plagiocla-se, K--feldspar, quartz, magnetite, ilmenite, garnet,zircon, apatite, allanite, topaz, sphene, cordierite, hauyne, leucite, nepheline,whit-lockite, brookite, petovskite, melilite, armalcolite, spinel and rutile) from 8 types of rocks, namely metaluminous (ultra) basic rock, peralkaline (ultra) basic rock, metaluminous intermediate rock, peralkaline intermediate rock,metaluminous acid rock, peralkaline acid rock, peraluminous acid rock and ultra-acid rock. It is found through an integrated ahalysis and comparison that the composition and structure of minnerals and melts seem to be the most important factors controlling mineral-melt element partitioning. Importanceshould be attached to minral structure and Al-supersaturation of melt which have, not been discussed by research workers. Finally, the present state and theproblems to be solved in the study of mineral--melt element partition coefficients are analysed, and the future trends of this research field are predibted.
    6  New minerals(2003.1~2003.12)
    ZHANG Xi-huan REN Yu-feng
    2008, 27(2):135-151.
    [Abstract](2011) [HTML](0) [PDF 1.37 M](19487)
    Abstract:
    本文以表格的形式列举了经国际矿物学协会(IMA)新矿物与矿物命名委员会(CNMMN)批准、并于2003年度正式发表的新矿物共55种,其中硅酸盐31种,磷酸盐5种,砷酸盐2种,硫酸盐4种,硫化物3种,碳酸盐2种,钒酸盐2种,硼酸盐1种,硒化物1种,硫盐1种,氧化物1种,氢氧化物1种,复杂卤化物1种.文中表格依次列出了矿物的中外文名称及化学式、晶系及晶胞参数、主要粉晶数据、物理性质、光学性质、产状及共生(伴生)组合等.
    7  In situ boron isotope analysis method for tourmaline and muscovite by LA-MC-ICPMS and its applications
    XU Jie ZHANG Gui-bin LI Nan LIN Meng WANG Jia-xing
    2020, 39(3):323-334.
    [Abstract](1199) [HTML](0) [PDF 12.52 M](16804)
    Abstract:
    The combination of multi-collector inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (MC-ICPMS) and laser ablation provides a useful tool for tracing the geological process by analyzing minerals under microscales. As one of the non-traditional stable isotopes, boron isotope has attracted more and more attention. In this study, the authors developed an in-situ method for high-precision analysis of B isotope in tourmaline with high-content boron and muscovite with low-content boron. Tourmaline and glass reference materials were applied to correcting the mass fractionation respectively, and in-situ B isotopes of two natural samples from southwestern Tianshan were also tested. In addition, the boron isotope of the in-house standard T-PKU was calibrated as -13.07‰±0.42‰ (2SD, n=66). The above testing results reveal that the condition of LA-MC-ICPMS is stable for a long term and suitable to producing high quality data about tourmaline with minimum spot size of 10 μm and muscovite with > 20×10-6 B concentration. The B isotopes of tourmaline and paragonite in Tianshan samples are helpful for tracing fluids sources.
    8  A preliminary study of typomorphic characteristics of different kinds ofblack jadeite jades in the world
    YAN Ruogu QIU Zhili DONG Chuanwan LI Liufen
    2009, 28(3):292-298.
    [Abstract](10543) [HTML](0) [PDF 1.20 M](14138)
    Abstract:
    Highgrade black jadeite is a kind of upscale and fashionable jade material that has become one of the jadeites characterized by fastest growing values in the past 20 years. Based on a comparison of mineralogical and geochemical characteristics between black jadeites (inky black jades)from different producing areas of the world, the authors hold that the black jadeites currently on the market can be mainly classified into jadeite jade, omphacitic jadeite jade and hornblende jade whose main components are jadeite, omphacite and dark green hornblende respectively. They include blackchicken jade, ink jadeite and blackkosmochlor from Myanmar and jade negro and galactic gold from Guatemala, with blackchicken jades similar to those from Myanmar also seen in Japan and Kazakhstan. The research results suggest that the main mineral composition, jade structure and inclusion characteristic combinations of black jadeite jades from different producing areas have their respective typomorphic natures, which can be used as the distinctive characteristics for their sources.
    9  Geochemical characteristics and tectonic environment of Hongtubu basalts and Chenjiahe intermediate-acid volcanic rocks in the eastern segment of North Qilian orogenic belt
    HE Shi-ping WANG Hong-liang XU Xue-yi ZHANG Hong-fei REN Guang-ming
    2007, 26(4):295-309.
    [Abstract](6472) [HTML](0) [PDF 10.59 M](14122)
    Abstract:
    Early Paleozoic volcanic rocks in Tianshui and Baoji areas along the eastern segment of North Qilian orogenic belt consists of Hongtubu basaltic lavas and Chenjiahe intermediate-acid volcanic rocks. Geochemical analyses show that Hongtubu basaltic lavas are similar to the intercalated basalts in Chenjiahe intermediate-acid volcanic rocks in characteristics, both fallen in the tholeiite series with high TiO2 (1.50%~2.73%). Their∑REE are 65.97×10-6~133.46×10-6 and 78.04×10-6~175.55×10-6 respectively, both are slightly enriched in LREE [(La/YbN being 2.00~4.40 and 2.71~4.40 respectively],and both have no obvious Eu anomaly or weak Eu negative anomaly(δEu being 0.85~1.10 and 0.85~0.99 respectively). Basalts from two groups are typically characterized by selected enrichment of LILEs, low abundances of HFSEs relative to NMORB, and prominent troughs of Nb and Ta, with low Nb/La ratio(0.28~0.43), which indicates the affinity of these volcanic rocks to island arc tholeiite(IAT). In addition, εNd(t)(+2.22~+4.08)values of basalts suggest that their mantle sources are similar to the depleted mantle source. Zr/Nb=17.21~36.33 and Ce/Nb=5.73~8.17, implying geochemical characteristics of N-MORB. Sr, Nd and Pb isotopes from Hongtubu basalts are similar to those in Chenjiahe basalts in composition. In the diagrams of εNd(t)-(87Sr/86Sr)t, (207Pb/204Pb)t-(206Pb/204Pb)t,(87Sr/86Sr)t-(206Pb/204Pb)t and εNd(t)-(206Pb/204Pb)t for basalts, the data are fallen in the DM, EMⅠand EMⅡ areas, probably with a little crustalontamination, indicating that the magma of basalts might have had a mixed gin.Thentermediate-acid volcanic rocks from Chenjiahe belong to the calc-alkaline series,they have relatively high abundances of REE∑REE=127.51×10-6~276.01×10-6), and are significantly enriched in LREE[(La/YbN= 4.79~13.51]. Most intermediate-acid volcanic rocks show weak Eu negative anomaly (δEu=0.53~1.20). The trace element patterns of Chenjiahe acid volcanic rocks are similar to those of the ocean ridge granite (ORG), with marked troughs of Nb, Ta, Zr and Hf. A synthetic study shows that the Chenjiahe intermediate-acid volcanic rocks in the eastern segment of North Qilian orogenic belt were formed in an island-arc setting, whereas the Hongtubu basalts were formed in an intra-arc rift setting (or an initial back-arc basin setting), probably being products of the early spreading evolution of the island_arc system towards the back-arc basin in the eastern segment of North Qilian during late Early Paleozoic. The results obtained provide evidence for the existence of the trench-arc-basin system at the juncture of Qilian and North Qinling orogenic belts.
    10  Geochemical characteristics of the heavy metals in soil, the south of Xuancheng, Anhui Province
    XING Run-hua SUI Xin-xin
    2022, 41(1):185-194.
    [Abstract](479) [HTML](0) [PDF 11.38 M](13295)
    Abstract:
    The geochemical characteristics and abnormal sources of As, Cd, Cr, Cu, Hg, Ni, Pb and Zn in the soil of Southern Xuancheng were analyzed and studied by using the 1:250 000 land quality geochemical survey data. It is found that the geological background is the main controlling factor for the content of soil elements, and that the spatial distribution characteristics of heavy metal elements in the surface and deep soil in the area are significantly consistent with the geological background and sedimentary environment. The high content of heavy metal in the soil parent rock geological background (Hetang Formation, Piyuancun Formation and Lantian Formation, etc) is the main influencing factor for the high anomaly of soil heavy metal elements. In addition, mining and atmospheric dry and wet deposition are also one of the factors affecting high anomaly of heavy metals in soil. It is found that Pb, Hg, Cd and Cr in soil have input sources of atmospheric dry and wet deposition. The main impact index of heavy metal in soil pollution risk in the survey areas was Cd. The proportion of samples that soil Cd exceeded the control value of soil pollution risk of agricultural land was 2.56%. The morphological analysis results show that soil Cd is mainly in ion-exchange state. Combined with crops investigation, it is found that there is a certain ecological risk in the area with high abnormal soil Cd.
    11  Geochemical characteristics, age and genesis of Cuonadong leucogranite, Tibet
    LIN Bin TANG Ju-xing ZHENG Wen-bao LENG Qiu-feng LIN Xin WANG Yi-yun MENG Zhan TANG Pan DING Shuai XU Yun-feng YUAN Mei
    2016, 35(3):391-406.
    [Abstract](1650) [HTML](0) [PDF 17.63 M](12898)
    Abstract:
    The Cuonadong leucogranite is one of the most important parts of North Himalayan leucogranite belt. Geochemical data show that Cuonadong leucogranite is the calcium alkaline and strong peraluminous granite with high silica (SiO2 is 74.20%~74.52%), poor iron (Fe2O3 is 0.04%~0.20%, FeO 0.04%~0.58%), poor magnesium (MgO is 0.06%~0.14%), and calcium alkaline (σ is 2.15~2.32) as well as strong peraluminous nature (A/CNK is 1.11~1.15). Its total rare earth is relatively low (∑REE is 47.24×10-6~57.59×10-6), with enrichment of LREE (LREE is 39.85×10-6~49.23×10-6), depletion of HREE (HREE is 6.91×10-6~8.68×10-6) and obvious negative Eu anomaly (0.49~0.80). It is characterized by an enrichment of some large ion lithophile elements (Rb, Th, U, K) and loss of high field strength elements (Nb, Ta, Zr Ti). Zircon U-Pb dating results show that the Cuonadong leucogranite's formation time is Miocene (21 Ma), which belongs to the peak of the late stage of north Himalayan leucogranite (24~12 Ma). Zircon εHf(t) values are negative with a wide variation (-3.92~-17.64), which shows that its magma source was the crust, mostly from the metapelite, with the probable mixing of many kinds of materials in its source. The petrogenesis of Cuonadong leucogranite is that the high Himalayan crystalline rock series experienced decompression melting during the rapid pull-back of the plate in the post-collision tectonic setting, with the initial magma crystallization temperature being 675~702℃.
    12  Rapid ascent of basaltic magma beneath the Datong Cenozoic volcanic field: Evidence from mantle olivine xenocrysts
    PAN Rong-hao ZHU Lei WANG Si-jia WANG Ji-chen WU Jia-yi HOU Tong
    2022, 41(3):519-536.
    [Abstract](595) [HTML](0) [PDF 13.51 M](12627)
    Abstract:
    Quantitatively determining the timescale during mantle-derived magma ascent from the source to eruption or emplacement is essential for the understanding of magmatism, however, the timescales of eruption/emplacement are still poorly constrained. Shanxi Datong Cenozoic volcanic field, north of the North China Craton, is an ideal area for the investigation. In this study, we focused on the mantle olivine xenocrysts entrained in ca. 0.2 Ma Shenquansi alkali basalt, and its timescale of residence in the host magma prior to eruption. According to mineral chemistry, cores of these mantle olivine xenocrysts have Fo values up to 97.7, which can be defined as extremely magnesian olivine. They are also characterized by the extremely low contents in Ca, Mn and Ni, suggesting they were captured from metasomatized mantle peridotite. Moreover, both of the mantle olivine xenocrysts display complex CaO profiles, attributed to complex magmatic processes in the magma plumbing system. The reaction rim widths of one olivine xenocryst vary significantly, implying it has experienced multiple crack processes when captured or dur- ing transport. The Fo values of the mantle olivine xenocrysts rims are about 70, indicating they are in diffusion equilibrium with the host magma (alkali basalt) at rims. Timescales obtained by Fe-Mg diffusion chronometry of olivine mantle xenocrysts show that they have only resided in the magma for months. For a lithospheric mantle thickness of 40~70 km, the fastest average ascent rate may exceed 500 m/d.
    13  Zircon U-Pb age and geochemistry of Mesozoic intermediate and acidic volcanic rocks from the Shandong segment (Jiaodong area)of the Tan-Lu fault
    CAO Guang-yue XUE Huai-min WANG Jin-guang
    2014, 33(6):1019-1038.
    [Abstract](5475) [HTML](0) [PDF 21.14 M](11596)
    Abstract:
    In this paper,LA-ICP-MS zircon U-Pb dating was carried out for four samples of volcanic rocks from Qingshan Group in Jiaodong area and, as a result, their concordant ages were obtained, which are 119.4±0.9 Ma, 118.2±1.0 Ma,120.2±0.9 Ma and 120.0±0.8 Ma, respectively. The results show that all the volcanic rocks in Jiaodong area were formed from about 120 Ma to 118 Ma in the Early Cretaceous period. The ages of Qingshan Group volcanic rocks from Shandong Province controlled by Tan-Lu fault are similar to those from the Su-Wan segment of the Tan-Lu fault zone,but younger than those around the Tan-Lu fault zone,which indicates that the duration of volcanic eruption along Tan-Lu fault is probably longer than the duration in other areas under the background of lithospheric thinning in eastern China. Geochemically, all the intermediate and acidic volcanic rocks have high K2O, ALK, LREE values and low MgO, TiO2, Ni, Cr, HREE values. According to the geochemical features, the volcanic rocks can be subdivided into trachyte-trachydacite and rhyolite. The trachyte-trachydacite is characterized by LILE enrichment(Rb,Ba,K)and HFSE depletion(Nb,Ta,Ti,P), but the rhyolite exhibits stronger depletion of Ba,Sr and HFSE (Ti,P). Compared with the rhyolite,the trachyte-trachydacite possesses higher Sr and Ba values as well as La/Nb and Ba/Nb ratios,but lower Rb/Ba ratios and δEu values. All these data indicate that they might have been derived from different magma sources. It is inferred that the trachyte-trachydacite rocks were derived from the mixture of the partial melting of the lower crust(Yangtze Craton or North China Craton)and enriched lithospheric mantle. In addition, the rhyolites were related to the partial melting of the lower crust in the regional extension environment and high geothermal anomaly background with crystallization differentiation during the magma evolution.
    14  The progress in researches on cordierite material synthesis
    ZHANG Wei
    2014, 33(4):747-762.
    [Abstract](4107) [HTML](0) [PDF 2.40 M](11121)
    Abstract:
    Cordierite is a mineral material characterized by low thermal expansion coefficient and good thermal shock resistance. Cordierite mineral material is relatively rare in nature, so cordierite is synthesized usually by the method of artificial synthesis. Based on the newest investigation results of synthetic cordierite, this paper deals with the progress of researches on such synthesis methods of cordierite as high purity oxide solid reaction at high temperature, natural mineral solid reaction at high temperature, the utilization of industrial wasted materials, the employment of agricultural wasted materials, the sol-gel and the low-temperature combustion synthesis. At present, the method of natural mineral solid reaction at high temperature is used for the preparation of cordierite in industry. In spite of a lot of advantages, this method also has many disadvantages. Therefore, the development trend of cordierite synthesis seems to solve the problem as to how to apply other synthesis methods to industrial preparation.
    15  The Infrared reflectance spectra and the identification system of gems
    GUO Li-he HAN Jing-yi LUO Hong-yu
    2006, 25(4):349-356.
    [Abstract](2955) [HTML](0) [PDF 396.30 K](9704)
    Abstract:
    At present, the infrared transmission spectroscopy is the best technique for determining whether jadeite is polymer-impregnated or not, and the infrared reflectance spectroscopy is a nondestructive and rapid determination method that provides mainly the fundamental frequency vibration spectra data of minerals and shows new application potentials in gemological research, especially in the identification of gem species. The gemological application of IR reflectance spectroscopy and the identification system of IR spectra of gems, including a database of 318 spectra and a searching and identifying program, are described in this paper.
    16  Petrogenesis and tectonic significance of the Neoproterozoic Danba metabasalt in western Yangtze block
    LIN Guang-chun
    2013, 32(4):485-495.
    [Abstract](4351) [HTML](0) [PDF 10.68 M](9198)
    Abstract:
    Petrology, geochemical and Nd isotopic data are reported for the Neoproterozoic Danba metabasalt in the Kangdian Rift on the western margin of the Yangtze block. Samples were collected from alkaline basalts, which are enriched in MgO, TiO2, with Mg# being 0.51~0.59. They have high total rare earth elements and show high fractionation between LREE and HREE. The trace elements are characterized obviously by enrichment of Th, Nb, Ta, Zr, Hf and LREE but depletion of Y and HREE. Their geochemical and Nd isotopic characteristics suggest that they are similar to OIB. The basaltic magma was generated in an intraplate setting, and was generated by partial melting of OIB mantle source region, with variable degrees of contamination of SCLM during magma ascending; in addition, some samples might have experienced contamination of the lower crust. These samples reveal some plume magmatism characteristics in petrochemistry, and imply that magmatism was probably related to the Neoproterozoic plume event, which resulted in the breakup of Rodinia supercontinent.
    17  Basic geological characteristics of the siderite-rich strata in the Xiamaling Formation, Jixian County
    ZHANG Kan ZHU Xiang-kun
    2013, 32(4):529-537.
    [Abstract](3596) [HTML](0) [PDF 15.25 M](8368)
    Abstract:
    The newly-exposed lower strata of the Xiamaling Formation near Tielingzi Village in Jixian County contain rich siderites. This paper reports the basic geological characteristics of these siderite-rich strata in terms of the field outcrop, petrology and major elements. Studies show that the profile is characterized by black shale interbedded with silty iron-rich layers/siderite concrete layers, and also has minor siltstone. Some iron-rich strata have turned into limonite layers in the outcrop because of intense weathering. Siderite is the main iron mineral phase in the strata. Siderites can form iron concretes, showing micritic or microcrystalline granulitic textures under the microscope, or form silty ferruginous layers with almost a comparable amount of silty quartz; it can also distributed sporadically in siltstone and black shale with relatively coarse particles. There also exists very little siderite residue in weathered limonite layers. The overall features of major elements show that the strata are rich in SiO2, TFe and TOC, but poor in MnO, CaO, MgO, P2O5 and S. Except for ferriciron in weathered layers, there is mainly ferrous iron in the strata. The TOC content decreases in order of siderite concrete, silty iron-rich layer, black shale and siltstone. The correlation diagram between TFe and Al2O3 content shows a negative correlation in iron-rich layers, while a positive correlation between them exists in normal black shale and siltstone, which suggests that iron in the former form originated from the ocean itself, while iron in the latter form originated mainly from terrigenous detritus. In addition, FeO content has a positive correlation with TOC content in fresh samples, which implies that the genesis of siderites may have some relationship with organic matter.
    18  Characteristics of common natural turquoise and identification of impregnated turquoise
    LUO Yue-ping DENG Wang-hui DUAN Ti-yu WANG Chun-sheng
    2011, 30(Z1):181-186.
    [Abstract](4025) [HTML](0) [PDF 838.98 K](8350)
    Abstract:
    As more and more treated turquoises appear on Chinese gem market, the authors collected lots of turquoises from different deposits on Chinese gem market in order to sum up the characteristics of the natural turquoises on Chinese gem market. At the same time, different types of treated turquoises were studied to find general difference between them and natural turquoises. The results show that natural turquoise and treated turquoise have different shades of color, inclusions and appearances. IR spectra of both natural and treated turquoises were studied, indicating that there are absorption peaks at 1 735, 1 600 and 1?500 cm-1 in treated turquoises, which are caused by the man-made polymer. If the turquoise is treated by polymer, there are absorption peaks at 1 735, 1 600 and1 500 cm-1 in a turquoise, and this can serve as convincing evidence in this aspect.
    19  New Minerals Discovered in China
    Zhou Zheng
    1997, 16(1):81-90.
    [Abstract](3928) [HTML](0) [PDF 1.74 M](7874)
    Abstract:
    From the discovery of the first new mineral hsianghualite in 1958 to the end of 1995,74 new minerals found in China had been approved by IMA CNMMN. Among them, 2/3 were discovered after 1981. The discovery of new minerals in China has the following features:(1) With the development of analytical methods, the number of new minerals discovered per year increases gradually: from the end of 1950s to 1960s, only one new mineral was discovered every year on the average, whereas from 1980s till now, three new minerals were discovered averagely every year. (2) The structures of many new minerals have been determined. (3) Most of the new minerals are in the lower category, mainly in the monoclinic system, and perfect crystals are rare; hsianghualite has the most abundant crystal faces, whose ideal faces can reach 146. (4) Among those new minerals, silicates take the first place in number, followed by native elements, alloys, and then oxides. (5) The modes of occurrence of new minerals are varied, most of them occurring in oxidized zones of various deposits and deposits related to ma fic or ultramafic rock masses. There are a few new minerals occurring in skarn and placer deposits or even in cosmic dusts and meteorite.(6) The new minerals are characterized by wide but uneven distribution. Till now, new minerals have been discovered in 20 provinces or autonomous regions, especially in Hebei, Qinghai, Inner Mongolia and Henan. The number of new minerals found in North China is larger than that found in South Chine. (7) The number of discoverers of new minerals is in tens. The first discoverer of new mineral is Prof. Huang Yunhui, whereas Prof. Yu Zuxiang is the one who discovered the most numerous new minerals in China, totally disclosing 11 new minerals by himself or together with other experts. Most of the discoverers are members of the Chinese Academy of Geological Sciences, China University of Geosciences, and Institute of Geochemistry, Academia Sinica as well as other educational and scientific research institutions. The discovery of new minerals has promoted the development of mineralogy in China. Tens of discoverers were awardees of the National Natural Sciences Prize or the Science and Technology Progress Prize of the Ministry of Geology and Mineral Resources for the discovery and research results of new minerals in 1980s. More than 60 new mineals discovered in China were collected by the Geological Museum of China, with some of them exhibited in the Minerals and Rocks Exhibiting Room.
    20  Characteristics and tectonic setting of Indosinian S-type granites in the northern margin of North China landmass
    TAO Ji_xiong HU Feng_xiang CHEN Zhi_yong
    2003, 22(2):112-118.
    [Abstract](1890) [HTML](0) [PDF 1.82 M](7832)
    Abstract:
    Indosinian S-type granites are widely distributed in central Inner Mongolia on the northern margin of North China landmass. Spread in nearly EW direction, the granites have formed a gigantic compound granite belt, with porphyritic biotite-admellite and moyite being the two main types. SiO2is abundant, Al2O3is 12.38%~15.34%. A/NKC (molecule ratio)>1.1, K2O/Na2O=1.1~3.1,δ=1.9~2.6,ΣREE is 45.778 ×10-6~486.501×10-6, andδEu=0.1~0.8. A series of zircon U-Pb surface ages (207~227 Ma) for the granites have been recently obtained from 1/50 000 regional geological survey. As the lithofacies and geochemical characteristics of the granites are similar to those of S-type granites, the authors conclude that the Indosinian granite in this area was formed in a post-collision setting instead of in the setting of syn-collision between North China plate and Siberia plate.

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